Download Animals, Rights and Reason in Plutarch and Modern Ethics by Stephen T. Newmyer PDF

By Stephen T. Newmyer

This groundbreaking quantity explores Plutarch's specified survival within the argument that animals are rational and sentient, and that we, as people, needs to take realize in their interests.

Exploring Plutarch's 3 animal-related treatises, in addition to passages from his moral treatises, Stephen Newmyer examines arguments that, strikingly, foreshadow these present in the works of such popular animal rights philosophers as Peter Singer and Tom Regan.

Unique in viewing Plutarch’s critiques not just within the context of historic philosophical and moral via, but additionally as an alternative within the historical past of animal rights hypothesis, Animals Rights and Reasons issues out how remarkably Plutarch differs from such anti-animal thinkers because the Stoics.

Classicists, philosophers, animal-welfare scholars and readers will all locate this e-book a useful and informative addition to their reading.

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67): Sed quomodo hominum inter homines iuris esse vincula putant, sic homini nihil iuris cum bestiis. Praeclare Chrysippus cetera nata esse hominum causa et deorum, eos autem communitatis et societatis suae, ut bestiis homines uti ad utilitatem suam possint sine iniuria. At the same time, in his presentation of the Stoic position here, Cicero hints, certainly unintentionally, at the peculiar ambiguity that the Stoic view of animals entailed which forced them to regard them as a necessary evil, a class of beings to which humans can owe nothing but which is at the same time absolutely essential to their lifestyle.

Plutarch had developed a somewhat similar argument in his treatise De amore prolis, wherein he maintained that nature preserves in an unadulterated form the traits peculiar to animals ( κρατον γ ρ ν εκε νοις φ σις κα μιγ ς κα πλο ν φυλ ττει τ διον , 493C) while humans are led by the very force of their reason and character ( π το λ γου κα τ ς συνηθε ας, 493C) into more sorts of judgments and opinions than lie open to the mental powers of animals. Indeed, in beasts, such versatility and freedom of expression by the intellect is not so abundantly available (το ς δ θηρ οις τ μ ν πολ τροπον το λ γου κα περιττ ν κα φιλελε θερον γαν ο κ στιν, 493D).

Yet DeGrazia’s most telling argument, which he terms the “gradualist thesis,” falls outside the scope of Stoic morality in maintaining that moral agency is a matter of degree, so that not all humans have all attributes of agency while not all animals have none. “The capacities to project into the future,” DeGrazia argues, “to learn from experience, to keep multiple considerations in mind, to feel for others, to make decisions, and so on are found, to some degree at least, in many mammals. . ”80 DeGrazia concludes his discussion by stating that the argument from moral agency is itself a product of species bias.

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