By Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi
Algae provide strength to provide renewable chemical substances and fuels utilizing solar power and carbon dioxide from surroundings or in flue gases whereas concurrently lowering the iteration of greenhouse gases. in view that those might be grown on marginal lands with micronutrients and macronutrients usually found in waste streams, algae-based chemical compounds and fuels don't compete with meals. nonetheless large-scale creation of algae-based fuels and chemical substances faces significant technological and low-budget demanding situations and it can by way of necessity require a biorefinery strategy in which the entire attainable algal parts are switched over into value-added compounds. the current sequence on algal biorefineries represents a discussion board for reporting the state-of-the-art of alternative applied sciences in addition to the most recent advances during this box. the amount II of this sequence enhances the amount I by way of the present state-of-the-art. various chapters during this quantity handle diversified matters starting from genetically modifies algae to new items to life-cycle research of algal products.
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Extra resources for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design
2012; Nozzi et al. 2013; Henley et al. 2013; Enzing and Nooijen 2012). Some of the approaches being contemplated are shown in Table 2. 2 Potential Environmental Impacts of Genetically Modified Microorganisms As the biotechnology industry grew, government regulatory frameworks developed in order to ensure the safe conduct of larger-scale industrial uses of genetically modified organisms. Early concerns about the technology focused on the potential public health impact of the creation of so-called novel life forms, but because almost Government Regulation of the Uses of Genetically Modified Algae and Other… 27 Table 2 Genetic engineering strategies for algae Enhance photosynthesis; improve carbon fixation Enhance pathway proteins like RuBisCO Introduce new carbon fixation pathways Enhance or alter lipid biosynthesis for improved diesel, jet fuel production Enable secretion of lipids to improve harvesting and separation Express, enhance transporter proteins Alter cell wall composition for easier cell lysis Metabolic engineering to enhance existing pathways Maximize carbon flow to desired product(s) Eliminate competing pathways Remove toxic, harmful compounds Introduce new pathways for desired products Ethanol Butanol Improved production of hydrogen for fuel use all industrial applications of modified microorganisms utilized well-studied species and strains known to be nonpathogenic, such concerns tended to be less prominent in the regulation of commercial activities.
Potential persistence in the environment: soil or water in vicinity of site of use. Potential disruption of natural ecosystems, such as native algae populations. Creation or enhancement of harmful algal blooms or ecologically disruptive algal blooms. Government Regulation of the Uses of Genetically Modified Algae and Other… 29 subject of academic study, often in the context of deliberate environmental uses of GMMs in agriculture or for bioremediation. (Sayler and Ripp 2000; Davison 2005; Viebahn et al.
Department of Agriculture would, in many cases, cover uses of transgenic plants as biofuel or chemical feedstocks – these regulations will be briefly described below although they would apply to proposed uses of modified microorganisms only in rare cases. Certain uses of modified microorganisms or algae could fall subject to FDA regulations as well. Naturally, microbial production of foods, pharmaceuticals, or other products within FDA’s traditional jurisdiction would be subject to that agency’s oversight, however, the nature and scientific basis for such regulation is outside the scope of this chapter and will not be discussed here.