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By John D Grainger

Alexander's demise used to be now not unpredictable: he suffered repeated wounds in the course of his lifetime, and multiple introduced him close to loss of life; he drank an excessive amount of; he constructed a fever, within which he endured to drink an excessive amount of; he believed he used to be a god; he ignored his doctor's assistance; he used to be confronted with large difficulties which he deliberate to stay away from via occurring crusade ... As a last act of irresponsibility, while requested to whom Read more...

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The presumption had to be that no king would be able to pass on his power to his successor, who was likely to be weaker for an ever-longer period. The turbulence of Amyntas III’s reign is one result – he was clearly a less effective king than his predecessors. The kings understood what needed to be done. 37 This he did in his decade and a half of rule, but he was able to do it because he took over a kingdom which was more or less intact. His predecessor Perdikkas had had to spend over 20 years recovering lost territories, and the succession dispute in 413, though lethal to several members of the royal family, had been brief, and had affected the royal house rather than the rest of the kingdom; the fact that the Greek powers were locked into their Great War also helped to insulate the dispute from outside interference.

21 These marriages linked these areas together politically, but the destruction of Bardylis’ army had been the key to the whole system. This diplomatic structure was designed, presumably, to block Illyrian expansion southwards. By these military and diplomatic victories Philip revived Macedonian power and added an association with the Molossi to a serious restriction on the power of Bardylis. There was little reason for others to take much note of what was going on. To southern Greeks, the battle in Lynkos was one between barbarian kings, of no real interest.

Under the leadership of Dionysios, the Syracusans had driven Carthage back to its last Sicilian foothold, and the rest of the island had been united under Dionysios as a consequence; he had then extended his control into southern Italy. The price was that Dionysios could not be removed, and he managed to so institutionalize his power that he could bequeath it to his son, Dionysios II, in 367. The only Greek political term which seemed to fit this situation was ‘tyrant’, but in effect it was a monarchy.

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