Conservation

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By H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch

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This is the primary requirement for a T&D system — the system must cover ground — reaching every consumer with an electrical path of sufficient strength to satisfy that consumer's demand. That electrical path must be reliable, too, so that it provides an uninterrupted flow of stable power to the utility's consumers. Reliable power delivery means delivering all of the power demanded not just some of the power needed, and doing so all of the time. Anything less than near perfection in meeting this goal is considered unacceptable.

As a result, engineering planning functions at many utilities cannot identify precisely what the problems are or prescribe the most effective and economical remedies. This particular subsection will provide a particularly comprehensive summary of this subject. Engineering tools are in an area where utilities can make immediate improvements and one where improvement must be made if the aging infrastructure issue is to be properly addressed. Chapters 9, 12, and 13 provide more detail on this subject.

1 INTRODUCTION Retail sale of electric energy involves the delivery of power in ready to use form to the final consumers. Whether marketed by a local utility, load aggregator, or direct power retailer, this electric power must flow through a power delivery system on its way from power production to consumer. This transmission and distribution (T&D) system consists of thousands of transmission and distribution lines, substations, transformers, and other equipment scattered over a wide geographical area and interconnected so that all function in concert to deliver power as needed to the utility's consumers.

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