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Download A Tiny Handbook of R by Mike Allerhand (auth.) PDF

By Mike Allerhand (auth.)

This short offers a roadmap for the R language and programming surroundings with signposts to additional assets and documentation.

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14 Labels can be suppressed by passing the empty string xlab="", ylab="", and drawn subsequently using title. [ plotð1:10; main¼"My plot"; ylab¼"y axis"; xlab¼"x axis"Þ [ plotð1:10; ylab¼""; xlab¼""Þ # Suppress axis labels [ titleðmain¼"My plot"; ylab¼"y axis"; xlab¼"x axis"Þ # Add title and labels Axis calibration Axes are calculated from the range of the data being plotted. The limits can be overridden using arguments ylim and xlim. Logarithmic scales are set using log="y" and log="x", or log="xy" for both axes.

If arrays are combined using c it strips the dim and dimnames attributes which are required by ftable. txt file opens in Notepad. csv file opens in MS Excel. 11 See: help(Sweave). 2 Graphs The original R graphics package is referred to as ‘‘base graphics’’. Other graphics packages include lattice and ggplot2. 1 Base Graphics The concept of the base graphics functions is for successive functions to add graphics and build plots up. This lead to two kinds of functions: ‘‘high-level’’ functions that create new graphs with axes, labels and titles, and ‘‘low-level’’ functions that annotate plots, adding points, lines, and text.

The result is a logical vector the same length as the longer argument. For example: [ x ¼ cð2; 4; 6; 8; 10Þ [ x [¼ 6 # 6 is recycled to match the length of x [ y ¼ cð"apple"; "apple"; "orange"; "apple"; "orange"Þ [ y ¼¼ "apple" Logical vectors can be combined using the operators28: & (AND), | (OR), and ! (NOT) to form composite conditions. For example: [ x [¼ 6 & y ¼¼ "apple" # TRUE where x [¼ 6 AND y ¼¼ "apple" Arithmetic With Logical Vectors Arithmetic operations are conventional for numeric data.

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