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By Béla Tomka

A Social heritage of Twentieth-Century Europe deals a scientific review on significant points of social lifestyles, together with inhabitants, relations and families, social inequalities and mobility, the welfare kingdom, paintings, intake and rest, social cleavages in politics, urbanization in addition to schooling, faith and tradition. It additionally addresses significant debates and diverging interpretations of old and social study concerning the historical past of eu societies long ago 100 years.

Organized in ten thematic chapters, this ebook takes an interdisciplinary process, utilising the equipment and result of not just historical past, but in addition sociology, demography, economics and political technological know-how. Béla Tomka provides either the range and the commonalities of eu societies having a look not only to Western ecu nations, yet japanese, crucial and Southern ecu nations to boot. an ideal creation for all scholars of ecu historical past.

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32 2000 Sources: Jean-Paul Sardon, ‘Generation Replacement in Europe since 1900’, Population: An English Selection, vol. , Europe’s Population in the 1990s, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 49–53 (Western Europe 1950–1990; Southern Europe 1950–1990; East Central Europe 1950–1990); Franz Rothenbacher, The European Population, 1850–1945, Houndmills: Palgrave, 2002, CD-ROM Publication (Denmark 1903; Spain 1901–1940); OECD Factbook 2007. , Magyarország történeti demográfiája, 896–1995, Budapest: KSH, 1997, 320 (Hungary 1900–1941); László Hablicsek, Az elso˝ és a második demográfiai átmenet Magyarországon és Közép-Kelet-Európában, Budapest: KSH, 1995, 41 (Hungary 1970–1990).

Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, Paris: OECD, 2007, 214 (Europe 2000); Time Series of Historical Statistics, 1867–1992, Budapest: KSH, 1993, 107 (Hungary 1900–90). /Slovakia; Hungary: present day territories; Different years: England and Wales 1891–1900, 1910–12, 1920–22, 1930–32, 1950–52; France 1898–1903, 1908–13, 1920–23, 1928–33; Netherlands 1890–99, 1900–09, 1910–20, 1921–30, 1931–40, 1950–52; Belgium 1891–1900, 1928–32; Ireland 1900–02, 1910–12, 1925–27, 1935–37, 1940–42, 1950–52, 1961, 1971, 1980–82; Germany 1891–1900, 1910–11, 1924– 26, 1932–34, 1949–51, 1960–62, 1970–72; Austria 1901–05, 1906–10, 1930–33, 1949–51, 1959–64; Switzerland 1889–1900, 1910–11, 1920–21, 1929–32, 1939–44, 1948–53, 1958–63, 1968–73, 1978–83; Sweden 1891–1900, 1901–10, 1916–20, 1926–30, 1936–40, 1946–50, 1960–64, 1970–74; Denmark 1895–1900, 1906–10, 1916–20, 1926–30, 1936–40, 1946–50, 1961–62, 1970–71; Norway 1891–1901, 1901–11, 1911–21, 1921–31, 1931–41, 1946–50, 1979–80, 1994; Finland 1891–1900, 1901–10, 1911– 20, 1921–30, 1936–40, 1946–50, 1960–64, 1970–74; Italy 1899–1902, 1901–10, 1921–22, 1930–32; Czechoslovakia 1909–12, 1920–22, 1929–32, 1937, 1949–51, 1960–61; Poland 1931–32, 1952–53, 1960–61, 1970–72, 1980–81; Hungary 1900–01, 1910–11, 1920–21, 1930–31, 1941.

The starting conditions (fertility and mortality levels before the transition), the commencement of the transition, and the dynamics of the process diverged from the model. Some of the stages may have been missing, or, at least, the length of phases seems varied in individual societies. Mortality started to decline in the second half of the eighteenth century in Europe, and, as will be shown, this process has continued to the present day, first at an accelerating, then at a decelerating pace. Timing lags were significant even between the three pioneering countries, England-Wales, Sweden and France.

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