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By David Chandler

From precedent days, Europe has been formed and re-shaped through army campaigns related to greater than 2000 battles. With assistance from a crew of individuals, David Chandler has assembled a accomplished advisor to 245 battlefields, giving easy evidence relating to situation, old context and the target of every engagement, information of the opposing forces, casualties and final result, and an invaluable bibliography touching on each one.

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Now, in 1815, the Prussian line of communication lay north-east via Liège to Cologne; Wellington's lay north-west on the line Mons-Ghent, that is south-west of Antwerp and west of Brussels. Napoleon therefore decided to advance along the axis of the Charleroi-Brussels road which led directly to the area where Wellington's left wing joined the right wing of the Prussian army. By 14 June the French army had concentrated in the area Maubeuge-Avesnes-Rocroi-Chimay. At this point Blücher's advance guard was at Charleroi, but his army as a whole was spread over the area Charléroi-Liège.

Total: 85,000. Casualties: (a) 4,000 Allied killed and wounded. (£) 15,000 French casualties, including some 9,000 prisoners. Result: A heavy defeat for the French which ultimately led to the Allied recapture of Ghent and Bruges and the fall of Lille. Suggested reading: General Works: Churchill, W. &, Marlborough, His Life and Times, Book II, London, 1947. Atkinson, C. , Marlborough and the Rise of the British Army, London, 1921. Chandler, D. , Oudenarde, London, 1971. Work of Fiction (on the period): Thackeray, W.

Total: c. 154,100. (b) Austrians: 139,500 infantry; 18,600 cavalry; 480 guns. Total: c. 158,000. Casualties: (a) 32,000 French. (4) 40,000 Austrians. Result: A French victory, eventually leading to the Peace of Vienna. Suggested reading: See Aspern-Essling, p. 1. General Work: Chandler, D. , Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars, London, 1969. ), a n d h a d to withdraw from the north b a n k of the D a n u b e , which was a blow to his prestige. After this check, however, Napoleon spent 6 weeks m a k i n g Lobau island in the D a n u b e an impregnable base of operations, building 3 bridges to the south bank from it a n d 4 bridges to the north.

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