By John W. Evans PhD (auth.), Werner Engelmaier Dipl.-Ing. (eds.)
While tin/lead solders have ruled the electronics for a few years, environmental issues and new laws are forcing swap. sponsored through greater than ten years of study in Pb-free solders, many electronics brands are poised for conversion.
A advisor to Lead-free Solders is meant as a device to assist because it strikes right into a new period within the construction and use of solders. an outline of the rules of soldering know-how is equipped starting with the idea underlying every one suggestion. targeting the main up to date tools for trying out and characterization, those theories are then strengthened by way of experimental examples and commercial applications.
• Addresses key concerns in meeting from a fabrics element of view.
• provides the reader handy entry to info crucial for the right kind evaluate and employment of state of the art ternary Sn/Ag/X solders
• permits comparability of the functionality of Pb-free solders with that of ordinary eutectic SnPb.
Although essentially of curiosity to expert layout and reliability engineers operating in electronics meeting and production, A consultant to Lead-free Solders can also be beneficial for graduate scholars trying to observe services in fabrics, mechanical or digital engineering during this undefined. Researchers in electronics and fabrics will locate the most recent examine at their fingertips including the most likely instructions will desire from such study within the future.
Read Online or Download A Guide to Lead-free Solders: Physical Metallurgy and Reliability PDF
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Additional info for A Guide to Lead-free Solders: Physical Metallurgy and Reliability
2 Microstructure and Cyclic Behavior Microstructural texture plays an important role in the fatigue behavior of solders. This is due to the dominance of creep behavior, operating temperatures and the importance of ductility to the short life. In general, microstructure in metals will affect creep resistance, depending upon the creep mechanism. For instance, larger grain sizes, or a coarser fully developed microstructure, will tend to be more resistant when grain-boundary sliding dominates the total creep strain (Kennedy 1974, Wen et al.
Increasing temperatures and solubility limits may lead to increasing dissolution of Cu from leads and boards into the molten solder for the leading alloys, particularly for high Sn content Pb-free solders. In addition, with changing lead finishes, Au buildup may be of increasing concern in wave soldering in the future. Cu also produces greater drossing rates, as do SnZn alloys, factors likely to increase maintenance requirements and costs for wave soldering in the future (AIM Solder Report 2003).
Celestre, R. , MacDowell, A. , Bong, Y. , Sheng, G. , (2002), Structure and Kinetics of Sn Whisker Growth on Pb-Free Solder Finish, 2002. , (2002) Relay Failure Caused by Tin Whiskers, 2002. , (1989) “Reflow Soldering Survey”, Circuits Manufacturing, p. 42, 1989. Dubravka Rocak, Vinko Stopar, and Janeta Fajfar Plut, (1995), “Solder Paste for Fine Line Printing in Hybrid Microelectronics”, J. of Microelectronics, 26, 1995, pp. , (1987) Process Optimization of Solder Creams, unpublished monograph, 1987.