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Download A Greek Army on the March: Soldiers and Survival in by John W. I. Lee PDF

By John W. I. Lee

Professor Lee presents a social and cultural heritage of the Cyreans, the mercenaries of Xenophon's Anabasis. whereas they've got frequently been portrayed as a unmarried summary political neighborhood, this booklet unearths that lifestyles within the military was once in most cases formed by way of a collection of smaller social groups: the formal unit agency of the lochos ('company'), and the casual comradeship of the suskenia ('mess group'). It contains complete therapy of the environmental stipulations of the march, ethnic and socio-economic kin among the warriors, apparatus and delivery, marching and camp behaviour, consuming and consuming, sanitation and remedy, and plenty of different themes. It additionally accords targeted cognizance to the non-combatants accompanying the warriors. It makes use of historic literary and archaeological proof, historical and sleek comparative fabric, and views from army sociology and sleek conflict stories. This e-book is key analyzing for someone engaged on historical Greek war or on Xenophon's Anabasis.

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The bl ack sea coast The fifth period of the campaign, roughly spring and summer 400 bc, took the Cyreans westward from Trapezus to Byzantium. The Black Sea coast was a mixture of the familiar and the exotic. On the one hand, there were the trappings of Aegean Greek life: the poleis of Trapezus, Cerasus, Cotyora, Sinope and Heracleia, sailing ships and merchants, even starchstiff Spartan officers. 115 The Euxine shore was a pleasant change from the rugged mountains and undulating plateaus of Anatolia.

56 The intense heat may 48 49 51 52 53 54 55 56 An. 1; cf. Shiel (1838) 85, Naval Intelligence Division (1944) 47, 90–6. Limited archaeological survey confirms the settlement pattern Xenophon describes; see Wilkinson (2000) 237, 242. 50 An. 5. An. 11–12. Both rivers reach minimum flow in October, the Tigris slightly earlier than the Euphrates; see Admiralty Naval Staff (1918) 14, Naval Intelligence Division (1944) 26, Beaumont et al. (1988) 357. For canals see An. 17. Naval Intelligence Division (1944) 41–5.

90 Of the humbler settlements there survives no trace, although we can recover some of their characteristics by comparing the Anabasis evidence with the observations of nineteenth-century travelers and twentiethcentury anthropologists in central Anatolia. 91 In Armenia and northern Anatolia, the Cyreans tended to encounter villages in clusters. 93 In mountainous 87 88 90 91 92 93 Although the army was familiar with night marching, the bitter night cold and the lack of landmarks on the snowy plain would have made such marches extremely hazardous.

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