Download A Concise History of Greece (Cambridge Concise Histories) by Richard Clogg PDF

By Richard Clogg

This ebook offers a concise, illustrated creation to the historical past of contemporary Greece, from the 1st stirrings of the nationwide move within the past due eighteenth century to the current day. it really is designed to supply a easy creation for basic and educational readers with very little earlier wisdom of the topic, and supersedes Professor Clogg's brief background of contemporary Greece which has turn into a vintage due to the fact its preliminary book in 1979. This most recent account is a totally new e-book, conceived afresh for a large readership, during which the numerous illustrations with their broad captions shape a big a part of the textual content.

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The latter decrees authorized the government to suspend the right to strike in the public sector when such action threatened the provision of essential public services, and defined the conditions for a legal strike vote. These were invalidated, however, by the constitutional court in 1981. Subsequently, the liberalization process primarily consisted in the adoption of four pieces of legislation: Royal Decree number 17 of March 1977, the law on trade unions of April 1977, the Estatuto de los Trabajadores (ELT) of March 1980, and the basic law on employment of October 1980.

The support of the majority of representatives was not easy to obtain, however, due to the persistence of an 11% unemployment rate and the high percentage of precarious jobs. 14 In 1986, Portugal also received 1360 million French francs (FF) from the EC to assist it in developing new technologies and modernizing/rationalizing fishing, agriculture, viticulture, communications and industry, particularly the branches of shipbuilding, textiles and shoes. The structural problems of the Portuguese economy were, in fact, comparable to those of Spain: an agricultural sector characterized by a predominance of small family operations, which were either unproductive or totally neglected, in the islands (the Azores), the North and the centre of the country; unproductive collective production units (CPUs) or major private holdings that often specialized in products that were in competition with those of other countries in the EC: vineyards, olive groves in the East (Alentejo) and the South (Algarve) of the country; an industry dominated by traditional small or medium enterprises (SMEs) in the ECG sector (textiles, shoes, clothes); or ensnared in the problems of obsolescence, overproduction or indebtedness in the largely staterun IGE sector (shipbuilding , iron and steel, petrochemicals, and so on).

As soon as it came into office, the new PSDP minority government, led by the new leader Anibal Cavaco Silva, took over the preceding government's economic program, and began the implementation of its structural reforms in order to maximize the benefits of membership in the EC. At the time of the official signing of the membership treaties, on June 11, 1985, Cavaco Silva in fact declared: We should adapt the financial, economic and administrative structures so as to reap the advantages of membership.

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